Engine and its types


Engine is main part of an automobile which produce the power required to run vehicle.

Types of Engine:

  1. External combustion (E.C.) Engine

As its name suggests the combustion of fuel takes place outside of engine. for example: consider a thermal power plant., in which the water is boiled and converted into steam and then it is used rotate turbine’s and further power generation. This type is generally used in ships and locomotives (trains).

  1. Internal Combustion (I.C.) Engine

In this type of engine the combustion of fuel occur in a cylinder containing reciprocating piston. The combustion of fuel generates high heat and pressure which pushes the piston down and thus it rotates crank with the help of connecting rod. This rotation is further carried to wheels.

Types of I.C. Engine

The type of engine used in automobile is I.C. only. The different types of I.C. engines are:

According to number of stroke:
  1.  Two stroke engine:

In this type of engine the piston moves up and down one time each. Which causes one revolution of crank shaft? and this type the two strokes happen at a time i.e., suction and expansion at the time of piston travel towards bottom( bottom dead center) and compression and exhaust strokes at the time of piston’s travel towards top( top dead center.

2 .Four stroke engine

In this type of engine, the piston moves up two times as well as two times down and thus crank makes two revolutions.

According to design of engine:
  1.  Reciprocating engine (piston engine)

The reciprocating engine consist a reciprocating member known as piston on which the pressure force is exerted. This piston reciprocates due to pressure force generated and this reciprocating motion is converted into rotary motion of crank and further transmitted to wheels.

  1.  Rotary engine (Wankel engine):

Rotary engine consist a rotor which rotates freely. The pressure force that is generated is exerted on to this rotor and thus the rotor rotates and further wheels also.

According to fuel used:
  1.  Diesel engine

          In this type of engine Diesel is used as fuel for combustion. This type of engine is used in trucks, buses and cars.

  1.  Petrol engine

          In this type, petrol is used as fuel. This type of engine is applied in bikes, sports cars and luxury cars.

  1.  Gas engine

In this type of engine uses LPG and CNG as fuel. They are used in some light vehicles.

  1.  Electric engine

It runs with electricity.

According to method of ignition:
  1.  Compression ignition engine

The diesel engine is also known as compression ignition engine. The fuel is ignited due to rise in temperature of air due to compression.

  1.  Spark ignition engine

The petrol engine also known as Spark Ignition engine(S,I.). In this type spark plug is used to ignite the air-fuel mixer.

According to number of cylinder:
  1.  Single cylinder engine

As it name suggests, it has a single cylinder and piston.

  1.  Multi-cylinder engine

As it name suggests, it has more than one cylinder and piston.

According to arrangement of cylinder:
  1.  In-line engine

In this type, cylinders are positioned in a line one after the other across the length of crank shaft.

  1.  V-type engine

In this type, the cylinders are positioned in such a way that, there will be some angle to each bank.

  1.  Opposed cylinder engine

In this type the cylinder are placed at angle of 180o to each other.

  1.  opposite piston engine

In this type, the pistons are placed in opposite direction and they have common combustion chamber.

  1.  Radial engine

It is an engine with pistons positioned in circular plane around the central crankshaft. The connecting rods of pistons are connected to a master rod to one point which is in turn, connected to the crankshaft

According to air intake process:
  1.  Naturally aspirated

In this type, the air enters the cylinder due to atmospheric pressure difference

  1.  Supercharged engine

In this type, air intake pressure is increased by the compressor which is driven by the engine crankshaft by itself.

  1.  Turbocharged engine

In this type of engine intake air pressure is increase by use of a turbine compressor driven by the exhaust gases of burning fuel.

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